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Bhagavan and the avataras

Srila Prabhupada: 
So the same Absolute Truth as He is revealed before the student of different capacities is called Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagwan as well.

Srila Jiva Goswami has explained the word 'Bhagwan' in the Bhagwad Sandarva (3rd Part).
The Personality of Godhead being full with all conceivable and inconceivable potencies, He is the Absolute Supreme Whole. And in the essence of such complete potencies in Brahman, impersonal Brahman is partial manifestation of the Absolute Truth. The first letter of the word 'Bhagawan' is 'Bha' which means sustainer and protector. The next letter 'Ga' means leader, pusher and creator. And 'Ba' [van] means dwelling. All living being dwells in the Supreme Lord and the Supreme Lord resides in every living being's heart. Combining all these three the word 'Bhagawan' carries an import of inconceivable potencies in knowledge, strength, energy, opulence, power and influence devoid of all varieties of inferior complex. Nobody can be sustainer and protector in full without such inconceivable potencies without deficiency. The Russian satellite is sustained by so many scientific arrangement completed by so many scientific brains. Can we imagine what gigantic brain and power is required to sustain in gravity unlimited planets and satellite in the unlimited space? After the Russian satellite, we can not bluff away people in general that there is no gigantic brain behind all these arrangement of planetary system. There is no reason to believe that all these gigantic planets are floating without such arrangement. In the same [way] the potency of the Supreme Lord can be explained in terms of the letters 'Ga' and 'Ba' mentioned above. So far protection is concerned everything is protected as much as sustained by the different potential agents of the Lord but He Himself in Person sustains and protects His devotees as much as a King takes personal attention of his children while the state affairs are generally managed by deputed agents. He is the leader of the devotees as we have known it from the Bhagwat Geeta. He personally instructs His devotees to make progress in the path of attaining the Kingdom of God.* And on the other hand He is Himself the recipient of all adorations offered by His devotees. He is Himself the objective and goal. And so far the creatorship is concerned, He creates a favourable condition for developing the transcendental love of Godhead. Sometimes He creates a favourable condition of the devotee by snatching away all material things of attraction so that a devotee may seek His shelter only baffled in all other direction. He is therefore the leader of the devotees. Although He is unattached to the business of creation, maintenance and destruction of the material world and He is Himself eternally busy in enjoyment of transcendental bliss amongst His internal parapharnalia, yet as the initiator of His material Energy or the material Nature as well as of the living beings He expands Himself as the Purusha Avataras infested[?] with similar potencies. The Purusha Avatars are also Bhagwan identical with the original Bhagwan like the original lamp is identical with subsequent lamps. The living entities are His minute particles and qualitatively equal. They are sent into this material world for material enjoyment in order to fulfill such independant desire and to manage such affairs of such material enjoyment He deputes Himself in state of companion Super Soul to witness and manage such affairs. The example of temporary mela is quite appropriate in this connection. The citizens of a state assembles in a fair for enjoyment and to manage their affairs a special officer is deputed by the government, such officer is empowered with all governmental power and He is identical with the government. The Paramatma feature is exactly like that of an mela officer. When the mela is finished there is no need of the officer and he returns to his original abode.

Therefore the living beings are not all in all. They are undoubtedly the parts and parcels of the Supreme Lord and they are undoubtedly qualitatively equal with the Supreme Lord but yet they are subject to be controlled and are never one and equal with the Lord. The Lord associates with the living being and therefore He is known as Paramatma or the Supreme Being. Nobody should therefore put in equal position the living being and the Sureme being. And the truth which is all pervading and exists eternally either in creation, maintenance or destruction of the material world and in which the living entities rest in trance that truth is called impersonal Brahman.

In the Srimad Bhagavatam (1.2.11) the above distinction and oneness of the Absolute Truth was explained by Suta Goswami the disciple of Sukhdeva Goswami before the assembly of sages like Sounak and others. He said that transcendentalists who know perfectly well about the Absolute Truth does not make any difference between Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagawan because all of them are one but differently realized by the respective students.

As far as the devotees of the Personality of Godhead (Bhagavan) is concerned they know Shri Krishna the son of the King of Braja, as the Absolute Truth! Such pure devotees, do not make any difference between Shri Krishna's Name, Form, Quality and Pastimes. If somebody makes any difference between His Absolute Name, Form, etc. then it must be understood that such differentiating person is lacking in the Absolute Knowledge. When a pure devotee chants the transcendental Name Krishna, he knows well that Shri Krishna is present as sound and receives the same with equal veneration. When he sees the Forms of Shri Krishna He does not see in that Form any thing different from Him. And if any one sees otherwise, he is to be considered as untrained in the knowledge of the Absolute. For want of this knowledge of the Absolute one is apt to be under duel consideration of Maya other than Krishna which places duality as Krishna and non Krishna separately under the influence of Maya (non-Krishna). In the manifestations of Krishna of all description as well as expansions of different Forms are all Absolute Knowledge and all such multiforms of Vishnu are masters of Maya. According to the mystic yogins the Absolute Knowledge is limited only in the conception of the soul and the Super Soul being equal in identity. And the empiric philosophers and monists impersonal existence of knowledge only without any difference between the self and Brahman—is called Absolute Knowledge. And with all, the Absolute Conception of pure devotee is inclusive of all others in their pure state. The devotee does not see anything other than in relation with Krishna and therefore such conception of absolutism is the most perfect conception.

The Upanishads confirm that the impersonal Brahman is the effulgence of rays emanating from the all-spirit Body of the Supreme Being. The example is given in the comparison of sun rays and the Sun. The sun in the naked eye looks like impersonal although there is the Sun God with all his paraphernalia. In the same way persons, speculating with imperfect senses, become impact[?] with impersonal knowledge of Brahman.

In the Mundak Upanishads this fact is corroborated (2nd part 9-11 mantras). Beyond this material nature there is impersonal glowing effulgence of Brahman. The light of Brahman is whitish and that is the source of light for all the luminaries. There in the Brahman there is no need of the Sun or the moon and what to speak of the light of fire. On the other hand all these luminaries emanate their respective light on account of the effulgence of Brahman. There is nothing but that effulgence of Brahman either in the front or in the back either in north or in the south or in the west or in the east. It is on head and downwards also therefore there is nothing but Brahman all round[?].

This description of the effulgence Brahman is still more clearly explained in the Brahma Samheeta (5.40). It is said like this by Brahma in his prayers for Govinda the Personality of Godhead.

"I worship Govinda, the Primeval Lord and the ultimate cause of all causes, whose bodily effulgence has produced Brahman and crores of universes with crores of planets within them all representing with respective opulence."

The example of the sun is again applicable here. The sun-disc is situated far far away from this or that planet and yet the rays of the sun surface and maintains all these planets. The sun is diffusing its heat and light all over the universe but the Supreme Sun Govinda as described in the Mundaka Upanishad above is diffusing His heat and light in the form of different potencies everywhere. The Sun and its heat and light are non different from the sun. In the same way Govinda and His unlimited potencies are non-different from Him. Therefore every where Brahman means every where Govinda. In the Bhagwat Geeta it is clearly mentioned that impersonal Brahman is not independant from Govinda. And that is the real conception of Absolute Knowledge.

This impersonal Brahman state is the place of merging into one by the hard labouring sages who live naked in the forest and does not allow their semen to go out of the body. Pure sannyasins who have attained a neutral state transcendental to the modes of nature also merge into that impersonal Brahman. This fact is corroborated in the Bhagwat (11.6.32).

The author of Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita, after proving de facto by evidences from scriptures about the nature of impersonal Brahman as being the effulgence of Govinda—now goes to prove it that Paramatma is the plenary portion of Govinda by evidences of Shastras.

He brings in again the example of the Sun in This connection. The sun resplends on innumerable valuable stones and all these stones appear to be different miniature suns. In the same way the Supreme Lord resplends in the heart of every living being and as such the Paramatma feature of the Lord experienced separately, although He is one without a second.

This fact is corroborated in the Bhagwat Geeta as well as in the Srimad Bhagbatam. The Personality of Godhead, by his transcendental nature, is eternally engaged in joyful pastimes and as such it is not His business to look after the management of Devidharma or the material world. He expands His self as Purushavatara or the Principal incarnation for controlling the activities of His separated parts namely the Jivas living being. The man is busy in studying the 24 elements in the constituents elements of this material world without knowing the controlling brain behind them known as three Purusha Avataras. One of the Purusha called by the name Kshirodak Shaee Vishnu is represented in the heart of every living being as the Super Soul Paramatma. Another Purusha called by the name Garvodaka Shaee Vishnu is the Super Soul of the collective living being and behind Him is the Karanodaka Shaee Vishnu who is the Super Soul of all the numberless universes and the Principle Head of the mistress of material creation called by the name Durga Devi. She is the superintending mistress of this fortress of material universes working under the direction of the Principle Purusha. The system of yoga is the process of transcending the influence of the material elements by establishing a connection with the Purusha known as Paramatma. And one who has thoroughly studied these intricacies of creation can know very easily that this Paramatma is the plenary portion of the Supreme Being Shri Krishna.

In the Upanishad it is said that the Jivatma (living being) and Paramatma (Supersoul) are like two birds sitting in the same tree. The Super soul engages the living being in executing the fruitive work result of his deeds in the past but He (Paramatma) has nothing to do with such engagements of the working Soul.

As soon as the living being ceases to act in terms of fruitive work and takes to the service of the Lord (Paramatma) and comes to know the supremacy of Him, immediately such living being becomes freed from all colors of designations and in that pure state he enters in to the Kingdom God known as Vaikuntha!

The Personality of Godhead Shri Krishna in His teachings of the Bhagwat Geeta, described about His non potencies before (Arjuna) and said that He (Arjuna) need not understand all these different potencies separately but he could simply understand that the Personality of Godhead in His partial representation as Paramatma is living in this mortal world to enliven the activities of the living beings.

A similar expression was made by Bhisma, the old grandfather of the Kurus, when he was lying on the bed of thorny arrows at his last stage of life. He prayed Shri Krishna who was present at his bedside along with other numberless friends, admirers, relatives and sages. He said like this "My dear Krishna! I have understood you like this that the Super Soul Paramatma Who lives along with every living being in the same body, is your partial representation only seemingly different but actually it is not. The sun is one but never under illusion only think about it as separately situated in different places and on different heads. Similarly you are one without second but you appear to be differently situated in different hearts. But such men when they purified by devotional service and do not have this illusion of separate existence. They can then understand that the transcendental Name, Form, Quality, Pastimes of the Personality of Godhead together with His innumerable plenary portions as well as different potencies, are all transcendental varieties in one unit of your Personality.

So far the description of Govinda in His Brahman and Paramatma features concerned is[in] an understandable measure the above mentioned explanations are precisely complete now the author of Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita advances his argument to prove that Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is identical Personality with Lord Shri Krishna. The same Lord Shri Krishna in the garb of a devotee of Shri Krishna has descended upon this mortal world to reclaim the fallen human beings who misunderstand the Personality of Godhead even after the explanations of the Bhagwat Geeta. In the Bhagawat Geeta the direct instructions of the Personality of Godhead Shri Krishna is that the Supreme Lord is Person. Impersonal Brahman is His glowing effulgence. Paramatma is His partial representation and all men are advised therefore to follow the path of Shri Krishna leaving aside all different types of mundane isms. This instruction was mistaken by the offenders on account of their poor fund of knowledge and as such out of His causeless unlimited mercy Shri Krishna has come again as Shri Chaitanya Goswami.

The Paramatma Supersoul is the guide of the living being individual soul. The Super soul does not take part in the matter of fulfilling the terms of the living being but He arranges for its fulfilment in the material nature. As soon as the individual soul becomes conscious of his eternal relation with the Supersoul and looks onward for Him only he (the individual soul) at once becomes freed from such terms of material enjoyment.

The Christian philosophers do not believe in the law of Karma. They put forward an argument that it is absurd to accept the result of our past deeds while we have no consciousness about it. A criminal is reminded of his misdeeds first in the law court by all evidences and thus he is punished . If death is complete forgetfulness then why a person should be punished for his past misdeeds? And to answer all these fallacious arguments the Paramatma conception is invincible. A man may not remember what he has done in his childhood but the father who has seen his son in all the different stages of development of a man's body certainly remembers all of them. Similarly the living being may undergo many changes of body in this or in the previous life but the Super Soul is always with him and as such he understands all instances in the (?) living being (?) gradual differentiation of the evolution of body.

This entertainment of the Paramatma feature is described in the Bhagwat Geeta as follows (BG 10.42)
"My dear Arjuna, what shall I tell you more, I am within everything in my Paramatma feature as my localized presentation." The Paramatma feature not only lives along with the individual soul but He lives within the atoms and electrons also. He is the inner power of everything.

This fact is more vividly in the Shrimad Bhagwatam (1.9.42).
When Bhisma was lying on the bed of arrows after the battle of Kurushetra, Maharaj Judhisthir went to him for inquiring from him some truths of religiosity. Along with Judhisthir Lord Shri Krishna also went there. At that time many prominent Rishis of different planes came there to pay respect to Bhisma. When he had finished answering the enquiries of Judhisthir, Bhisma Deva at the junction of his passing away worshipped the lotus feet of Shri Krishna by a number of prayer songs out of which the following statement is author[another?].

Bhisma said "Oh My Lord Krishna! One of your features known as Paramatma dwells in the heart of every individual soul seemingly or differently situated exactly like the Sun, although one but yet appears like different suns on every individual person's head. But as soon as such individual soul becomes reinstated in his eternal relation with you, such different conceptions are liquidated. I also take this opportunity of knowing your eternal Form as you are, without being bewildered knowing well that Paramatma is your localized aspect only..."

The Supreme Truth is the Absolute Person who resides in the transcendental Nature. He is full of all energies and dwells as Narayana there, the Lord of the goddess of good luck.

'All the vedas, puranas and upanishads as well as the Bhagwat which are all revealed scriptures—declare in one voice that the Absolute Truth is one without one second Personality.

That Personality of Godhead is realized in the light of devotional service only as the demigods in the heaven can meet the Sun in person.

The sputnics are being thrown by the Russians on an attempt to reach the sphere of the moon. Every planet has its own particular climate and (?) under the influence of different materialistic arrangement. It is therefore necessary to have particular bodily construction to reach a particular planet. The inhabitants of the earth may be able to reach the planet moon but the inhabitants of the planet known as heaven can reach even the Sun globe which is a fiery sphere. What is impossible for men on earth is an easy job for the gods in the heaven. It all depends in the change of bodily encagement.

Therefore the Personality of Godhead is unapproachable by those who are habituated in speculating about the Absolute Truth by experimental scientific thought without any reference to the transcendental creation. Such ascending process of approaching the Absolute Truth ends in the realization of impersonal Brahman and localized Paramatma without any realization of the transcendental Personality.

There are however many authorized statements in the Vedas regarding the Personal feature of the Absolute Truth. They are as follows:

(1) In the Ric Samheeta (1.22.20) "The Aryans only can always aspire after the Supreme Person Vishnu. The Supreme Person is like the Sun God who has spread himself all round by his energy of different rays. He is imperson to the imperfect naked eyes.

(2) Narayanatharbasir Upanishad:—It is from Narayana only that everything is generated, by Him only everything is maintained and in Him only everything is annihilated. Therefore Narayan is eternally existent. Whatever is there it is nothing but Narayana—everything that is now in existent and everything that will be created in future also. Narayana is the unadulterated Deity and there is only Narayana and nothing else.

(3) Narayana Upanishad:—"From whom everything is emanated. The whole universe is emanated.
(4) Haya Shira Pancharatra:—"Hari is the Supreme Lord."
(5) Bhagwat (11.3.34-35):—Brahman and Paramatma are synonyms of Narayana. Oh you who are conversant in the transcendental knowledge be unto Him. He is the cause of all causes in the matter of creation, maintenance and destruction. He is present in all stages of manifestation, non-manifestation and potential. All functions of the body and senses including the pulsating heart everything conducted by Him only and everything is kept in action and for this reason He is the King of all living creatures.

As such the Personality of Godhead Vishnu Tatwa is originally a Person but He is realized impersonally as Brahman or Paramatman in terms of the capacity of the seer. The best example for this is therefore the glowing Sun and his Personal existence within the disc.

That Narayana is identical with Shri Krishna. They are in fact one Person manifested only differently; it is just like a High Court judge situated in different status in his office and at his home. As Narayana He is manifested with four hands but as Krishna He is manifested with two hands. When Brahma realized the truth about Shri Krishna at the end of his mystic action on the cows and playmates of Shri Krishna, he said:—

"Oh My Lord! You are the witness of all the worlds. If you are the Super Soul of every living being are you not then my directive father? You are Narayana because you are the sustainer of all living beings. Narayana is your plenary portion. All the Purusha avatars are your Plenary Portions and all of them are transcendental to the influence of material nature."

Brahma was bewildered in the pastimes of Shri Krishna at Vrindaban. When came to his senses, he was ashamed before the Lord and apologized for his offensive reactions in the matter of stealing the cows and playmates of Shri Krishna. He said, "My Lord I am born out of the lotus grown out of and manifested by your naval-spring(?). As such I am your son and you are my father. Father or mother never takes seriously any offence by the children. So will you kindly pardon me and give me your blessings.

Shri Krishna replied sarcastically, "Brahma your father is Narayana. I am simply a cow-boy. How you can become a son of me." Brahma said "My dear Lord! Are you not Narayan? I may say the reason of your becoming the original Narayan. You are the Super Soul and the cause of all living beings residing both in the mundane as well as transcendental creation."

You are as much the sustainer and creator of all the living beings as earth is the cause and sustainer of earthen pots. The word 'Nara' means collective living beings and 'Ayana' means the sustainer. Therefore originally you are the 'Narayana.' " The purport is like this. Anything that is created in the material world is caused by the (in action ?) of the three modes of material nature and therefore they are called material products. But there are other creations which are not affected by such material modes. Such creations are called transcendental. In the transcendental creative energy the living being has no other duty to render loving service to the Supreme Lord. In contrast to this loving service, mundane people are engaged in the service of the different modes of material nature in obedience to the mundane time and space. In other words living entities, in the transcendental nature, are cent per cent engaged in the service of the Lord but the living entities in the mundane world are engaged in the acts of time service producing a sense of mundane happiness or distress In the transcendental duty there is no such feeling of duality and mundane happiness or distress.

And for all these different varieties of living beings Sankarshan is the original cause as He manifests all these Jivas by display of His marginal potency. Some of them are conditioned by material nature and others are under the protection of spiritual nature. The material nature is a conditional manifestation of spiritual nature as much as smoke is a conditional stage of fire. Smoke is dependant on fire but in the blazing fire there is no place of smoke. Smoke is disturbing but fire is serving. Such serving spirit, in the transcendental creation, of the residents of transcendental creation, is displayed in five varieties of relations with the Supreme Lord. The Supreme Lord is the central enjoyer in the transcendental world. And the material world everyone is self centered enjoyer of mundane happiness and distresses. But with all (?) of these different varieties of living being without the control of the Supreme Lord. He is called therefore Narayana.

Shri Brahma Ji advanced some other reasons also in support of his conclusion that Shri Krishna is the original Narayana. He said therefore that the controlling Deities, of the living beings in the mundane worlds, are the three Purusha Avatars. But potential energy displayed by Shri Krishna is far wide and extensive than that of the Purushas. Shri Krishna is therefore the original father and Lord who protects all creative manifestations by different plenary portions. He sustains even the restoring needs of the collective living beings and as such there is no doubt about it that Shri Krishna is the original Narayana.

The third reason of Shri Krishna being the original Narayana is that Shri Krishna in His Paramatma feature lives in the heart of all living being both in the transcendental as well as mundane creations. As Paramatma He witnesses all actions of the living being in all stages of time factors namely past, present and future. Shri Krishna knows what a living being had done in his hundreds and thousands of births before. He sees what we are doing now and therefore He knows the result of our present actions how to be fructified in the prospective future. As stated in the Bhagwat Geeta the whole cosmic situation is created as soon as He puts His glance over the material energy. Nothing can exist without His superintendence. As He sees even the resting abode of the collective living beings, so He becomes the original Narayan. The purport of Brahma Ji's argument was that Purusha who sits within the heart of every living being as well as the Purusha rests as Garbhodaka Shayee Vishnu all of them are plenary portions of Shri Krishna. Thus Shri Krishna is conclusively the original Narayana.

The three Purushas mentioned above namely (Karanabedhi Sahyee Vishnu, Garbhodaka Shayee Vishnu, and Khirodaka Shayee Vishnu all have some sort of relation with the material energy called Maya, because the material cosmos is created by them through the Maya. These three Purushas are living in the water (Karana, Garbha and Khira and are the Super Soul of everything that be. (Karanarnava Shayee Vishnu is the Super Soul of the collective universes. Garbhodaka Shayee Vishnu is the Super Soul of the collective living beings and the Kshirodaka Shayee Vishnu is the Super Soul of all individual entities. And because all of them are somehow or other attached to the affairs of the material energy they can be said to have some affection of Maya; but Shri Krishna Himself is concerned(?) there is not even the slightest tinge of Maya in His pure transcendental position. Such transcendental state is called Turiya or the fourth dimensional stage. It is confirmed in the Bhagwat (11.15.16).

The phenomenal manifestation of the Supreme Whole as well as nouminal soul of everything as well as the cause or the causal nature, all of them are but designations of the Purushas responsible for material creations. The transcendental position is surpassing this designations and therefore it is called the position of the 4th dimention.

But the beauty is that all these Purushas are never to be called mundane on account of their being in transcendental position in spite of their being in touch with mundane affair.

And that is the prerogative of the Lord. In the Bhagwat (1.11.38) it is said there that the Supreme Lordship is established only because the Lord is never affected by any material condition. Even a conditioned soul who is in the devotional service of the Lord does not also become affected by material nature on account of his being transcendentally situated.

The three Purushas above mentioned are subordinate expansions of Shri Krishna. Karnarnava Maha Vishnu is the principle Purusha Who expands Himself as Garbhoda Shayee Vishnu and Kshiroda Shayee Vishnu. This Karnarva Shayee Vishnu is an expansion of Sankarshan. The second Purusha is from Pradumna and the third Purusha is from Aniruddha. And the four principle expansions like Shamkarshan, Aniruddha, Praddhumna and Vasudeva all are expansions of Narayana in Vaikuntha. And Narayan is manifestation of Shri Krishna. But none of them are lesser potential than one another.

From all the above mentioned different statements, the statement of Brahma that Sri Krishna is the original Narayana is confirmed without any doubt. This statement of identity of the Vishnu Tatwa is the substance of Absolute Truth as it is stated in the Srimad Bhagwatam. In different places this can be applied to understand the nature of in Absolute Truth! Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagwan all of them are manifestation of Krishna but for want sufficient knowledge, foolish scholars derive its import in varied ways.

Scholars who argue that Narayana (according to Mayavada school) is the original Personality of Godhead from Whom Krishna is an incarnation. This conclusion is derived on account of Shri Krishna possessing only two hands while Narayana has four hands. Such less intelligent scholars do think two hands are lesser than four hands without knowing the Absolute feature. For these scholars with poor fund of knowledge Shrimad Bhagwat gives a befitting reply.

According to Srimad Bhagwatam (1.2.11) the word 'Bhagwan' is the principle word and impersonal Brahman or Paramatma are two different corollaries deducted from the Absolute Personality as the government and the ministers are deductions from the Supreme executive head. In other words the purpose of this sloka of Srimad Bhagwat (1.2.11) is that the principal is exhibited in three different phases. The Absolute Truth Personality of Godhead (Bhagwan) Sri Krishna is known as Brahman and Paramatma but all of them are identical. This sloka is alone able to defeat the fallacious arguments of less intelligent men. But there are other slokas also in the Srimad Bhagwatam which confirm the above statement still more convincingly. The statement made in the Bhagwat (1.3.28) definitely negativise the conception of Shri Krishna's becoming an Avatara of Vishnu or Narayan. He is the original Personality of Godhead the Supreme Cause of all Causes. In this sloka it is clearly said that the Personalities of Godhead as Sri Rama, Nrsingha, Varaha etc all of them undoubtedly belong to the Vishnu group but all of them are either plenary portion of the original Personality of Godhead or part of such plenary portions in different features. But as far as Shri Krishna is concerned He is the original Personality of Godhead. This statement was made [by] Srila Suta Goswami at Namisaranya when he was explaining about the different plenary expansions of the Supreme Lord. As a matter of fact he (Srila Suta Goswami) explained every one of such different expansions and lastly he established the originality of Shri Krishna.

Persons who are biased to accept Shri Krishna as Avatara of Narayana can be well replied by this statement in pursuance of rhetorical arrangements. In the science of rhetoric the known subject in a sentence is called 'Subject' and the unknown qualification of the subject is called 'predicate'. For example if it is said that this Brahmin is a learned man then the the Brahmin becomes subject or known man and therefore the subject of the sentence is put forward first and his qualification of being a learned man is followed. The following qualification is called predicate. But nobody puts first the qualifications without stating the subject. Such unweary(?) statements of placing the qualification first without any knowledge of the qualified man carries no meaning.

In the statement of Bhagwat (1.3.28) "Eteh Chamsha Kala Pumsha" etc 'Eteh' means all these i.e. all the incarnations mentioned herein before are all well known and therefore the word "Eteh" is the subject. And the announcement of their becoming the incarnations of the Personality of Godhead was not known before and as such it is the predicate of the sentence. In the first instance Krishna is also taken as one of the incarnations but to distinguish Him specifically He is said to be Personality of Godhead Himself. This fact being disclosed afterwards, it is taken to be in the predicational order. That is the rehtorical system which definitely indicates that Shri Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead. There cannot be any other import of the "Krishnas tu Bhagawan Sayam" or 'Sri Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead'. If it would have been fact that Narayana was the original Personality of Godhead Then the statement Sri Suta Goswami would have been differently stated. Sri Krishna becomes definitely the original Personality of Godhead without any doubt.

The statements of Srimad Bhagwat are all transcendental sounds recorded in Sanskrit alphabets. They are revealed statements after perfect realization by Srila Vyasdeva and as such there cannot be any frailties like mistake, illusion, cheating or imperfectness of perception. The difference between a conditioned soul and that of a liberated soul is this that a conditioned soul is sure to commit mistake, bewildered in illusion, possessing a sense of cheating others and impelled by imperfect sense-perception. There cannot be any tinge of all these deficiencies on the part of Sri Vyasadeva. The fallacy of dislocation of rhetorical arrangement can never be committed by persons like Vyasdeva. Unless we accepts this fact there is no use to help from the revealed scriptures.

"Swayam" means the original Personality. And this word "Swayam" has been purposely used here. The original Personality of Godhead Sri Krishna expands Himself in plenary forms and as a matter of course all such plenary portions become the Personality of Godhead.

The Personality of Godhead or His Plenary portion or His self realized devotees all of them are transcendentally situated. As such none of them can be mislead by any false knowledge. Neither they can be illusioned to accept one thing for another or to say or to hear one thing in place of another. Such liberated persons or personalities cannot be induced to cheat others by anything in action. Neither they can be imperfectly imbibed with sense perception. None of their senses are imperfect by inability in proper action such imperfectness of visionary organs in the matter of seeing the minutest particles or to see everything yellow in the jaundiced eye. Neither unable to hear far away messages even without the help a radioset.

The arrangement of incarnations of the original Personality of Godhead is like that of burning a lamp from another. From one burning lamp you can lit up innumerable other lamps which are not inferior to the original lamp. But still you have to take account of the original lamp. That is the position of the original Personality of Godhead with His unlimited number incarnations in different forms and categories.

By analysis of transcendental manifestations of Krishna and Narayana it has been definitely established in the Srimad Bhagawatam that Sri Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead. It is said in the Bhagwat (2.10.1-2) that there are, in the text of the Bhagwat, ten subject matters dealt in it. Out of the ten subject matters the tenth one is the Substance and the rest nine are categories derived from the Substance. The Substance is Shri Krishna Himself or the transcendance while the rest nine as described below are different categories. They are as follows:—

(1) Sarga:—Five elements, Five sense perceptions, ten sense-organs, Mind, Consciousness, ego. A combination of this is the Cosmic manifestation including their original form in transcendance.

(2) Visarga:—Direct creation from Brahma, lord of the universe called Brahmanda.
(3) Sthiti:—Maintenance by the Personality of Godhead. Brahma is the Constructor of the universe, Shiva is the destructor but Vishnu is the maintainer.

(4) Poshana:—Special care for the devotees. The king maintains his kingdom and looks after the maintenance of his subjects but yet he has his special attention upon his family members. In the same way the Personality of Godhead has His special care for His devotees who are completely surrendered souls unto Him. This is called Poshana (family maintenance).

(5) Uti:—Urge for creation or the initiative power which is the cause of all inventions according to the necessities of time, space and object.

(6) Manvantara:—Regulative principles for the living being who desires to make a perfection of human life. The rules of Manu as described in the Manu Samhita are the guidance to such way of perfection.

(7) Ishakatha:—Scriptural information in the matter of the Personality of Godhead, His descent on the earth, the activities of His devotees, His agents, etc. Any scripture which deals in these subjects is essential for human life in progress.

(8) Nirodhe:—Winding up of all potential energies employed in the matter of creation. Such potencies are imanations from the Personality of Godhead Who eternally sleeps in the Karana Ocean. Along with his breath the cosmic creation is manifested and wound up in due course.

(9) Mukti:—Liberation of the conditioned souls who have been encaged in the gross and subtle coverings of body and mind. Mukti is the stage of living being when he is free from all material affections.

(10) Ashraya:—The transcendence or Summum Bonum from Whom everything emanates, in Whom everything rests and in everything merges into, is the Absolute Whole Supersoul.

In the tenth Canto of Srimad Bhagwat the Absolute Personality of Godhead Who is the 10th subject matter, to be dealt with, out of the above 10 subjects, is the Supreme repose of the fully surrendered souls as He is transcendence. In the Bhagwat (2.10.2) that Summum Bonum, known by the name of Shri Krishna is worshipped in obeisances.

In order to distinguish the 10th transcendence, the great souls who are experts in the matter describing Srimad Bhagwatam, have very diligently delineated the other nine categories above mentioned by direct narration in some places and in some other place by indirect narration of stories etc. The real purpose of doing all these is to know perfectly well the Absolute Transcendence Shri Krishna. In other words the whole creation both material and spiritual all rest on the Body of Shri Krishna.

That Supreme Transcendance or the Summum Bonum, in His natural sequence and by His potencies, which are beyond the scope of the speculative mind of a human being, do eternally exists simultaneously in four transcendental features namely His Personality, His impersonal effulgence, His potential parts and parcels the living being and as the chief cause of all causes. The whole thing is compared with the Sun which exists in four features namely the Personality of the Sun-God, that glow of his glaring sphere, the sun-rays outside the disc and his reflection in so many objects. The very idea that we want to corroborate the existence of the Transcendence Absolute Truth by limited cognitive endeavour is untainable. He is beyond the scope of our limited speculative mind. But in honest search of truth we must admit that His power is inconceivable by our tiny brain. The Russian Sputnik required much of the great scientist of the world and yet there are many many confronting problems before the scientists which makes them bewildered even in the A.B.C. knowledge

Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila, Chapter 2.  English version and explanations of Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita by Krishna Das Kaviraj Goswami, Second Part, Edited by Goswami Abhay Charan Das Bhaktivedanta Editor "Back To Godhead" "Bhagavad-Darshan" etc., 1957. The League of Devotees (Reg)1/8/59, Keshi Ghat, Vrindaban (U.P.), Essays on Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita Page 30, (Second Part)

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